what time is it?

Senin, 31 Mei 2010

looklet


There are so many site that I always opened when I’m online, like FACEBOOK (of course), yahoo (to check my new e-mail), GOOGLEing (if i wanna search something), TWITTERing (not too often), and the last site that I never forget to open is LOOKLET.COM, seems like fashion magazine and we can be a fashion stylist. I love fashion and thats why I love this site very much. I’ve made about 100 something looks and I’ll show you the picture..

Total physical Response

INTRODUCTION

Total Physical Response is one of the English teaching approaches and methods developed by Dr. James J Asher. It has been applied for almost thirty years. This method attempts to center attention to encouraging learners to listen and respond to the spoken target language commands of their teachers. In other words, TPR is a language teaching method built around the coordination of speech and action; it attempts to teach language through physical (motor) activity.

Asher’s Total Physical Response is a “natural method” since Asher views first and second language learning as parallel processes. He argues that second language teaching and learning should reflect the naturalistic processes of first language learning. For this reason, there are such three central processes:

a) Before children develop the ability to speak, they develop listening competence. At the early phases of first language acquisition, they are able to comprehend complex utterances, which they hardly can spontaneously

b) Produce or imitate. Asher takes into accounts that a learner may be making a mental blueprint of the language that will make it possible to produce spoken language later during this period of listening;

c) children’s ability in listening comprehension is acquired because children need to respond physically to spoken language in the form of parental commands; and

d) When a foundation in listening comprehension has been established, speech evolves naturally and effortlessly out of it.

Asher believes that it is crucial to base foreign language learning upon how children learn their native language. In other words, TPR is designed based upon the way that children learn their mother tongue. In this respect, TPR considers that one learns best when he is actively involved and grasp what he hears (Haynes, 2004; Larsen-Freeman, 1986; Linse, 2005).

REVIEWING THE PRINCIPLES

1. What are the goals of teacher who use Total Physical Response ?

Teacher who use TPR believe in the importance of having their students enjoy their experience in learning to communicate in a foreign language.

1. What is the role of the teacher? What is the role of the students?

Initially, the teacher is director of all students behavior. The students are imitators of her nonverbal model.

1. What are some characteristics of the teaching/learning process?

The first phase of a lesson is one of modeling. The instructor issues commands to a few students, then performs the actions with them. In the second phase, these same students demonstrate that they can understand the command by performing them alone.

1. What is the role of the students native language?

TPR is usually introduced in the student’s native language. After the introduction, rarely would the native language be used. Meaning is made clear through body movements.

1. How is language viewed? How is cultural viewed?

Just as with the acquisition of the native language, the oral modality is primary. Culture is the lifestyle of people who speak the language natively.

ROLE REVERSAL

Students command their teacher and classmates to perform some actions. Asher says that students will want to speak after ten to twenty hours of instruction, although some students may take longer. Students should not be encouraged to speak until they are ready.

CONCLUSION

Now that we have had a chance to experience a TPR class to examine its principles and techniques, you should try to think about how any of this will be of use to us in our own teaching. The teacher we observed was using TPR with grade 5 children; however, this same method has been used with adult learners and younger children as well.

community language learning

INTRODUCTION

Community Language Learning (CLL) is the name of a method developed by Charles Curran and his associates. Curran was a specialist in counseling and a professor of psychology at Loyola University, Chicago. His application of psychological counseling techniques to learning is known as Counseling-Learning. Community Language Learning represents the use of Counseling-Learning theory to teach languages. As the name indicates, CLL derives its primary insights and organizing rationale from Rogerian counseling. Counseling is one person giving advice, assistance and support to another person who has a problem or is in some way in need. Community Language Learning draws on the counseling metaphor to redefine the roles of the teacher as counselor and the learners as clients in the language classroom. CLL is cited as an example of a “humanistic approach”.

EXPERIENCE

For the next two classes the teacher decides to have the students continue to work with the conversation they created. Some of the activities are as follows :

1. The teacher selects the verb ‘be’ from the transcript, and together he and the students conjugate it for person and number in the present tense. They do the same for the verb ‘do’ and for the regular verb ‘work’.
2. The students work in small groups to make sentences with the new forms. They share the sentences they have created with the rest of the class.
3. Students take turns reading the transcript, one student reading the English and another reading the Indonesian. They have created with the rest of the class.
4. The teacher puts a picture of a person on the blackboard and the students ask questions of that person as if they have just met him.
5. The students reconstruct the conversation they have created.

CONCLUSION

Although CLL is primarily meant as a ‘whole’ approach to teaching I have found it equally useful for an occasional lesson, especially with teenagers. It enables me to refocus on the learner while my students immediately react positively to working in a community. They take exceptionally well to peer-correction and by working together they overcome their fear of speaking. I have also found quieter students able to offer corrections to their peers and gladly contribute to the recording stage of the lesson. It’s a teaching method which encompasses all four skills while simultaneously revealing learners’ styles which are more or less analytical in their approach to language learning. All of which raises our awareness as a teacher and that of our students.Once you have tried CLL with your class, it’s a good idea to evaluate the method. Here are some possible questions you could ask.

the audio-lingual method

INTRODUCTION

The Audio-Lingual Method is an oral-based approach ( like the Direct approach ), but it drills students in the use of grammatical sentence pattern. Unlike The Direct Method, it has a strong theoretical base in linguistics and psychology. It was thought that the way to acquire the sentence patterns of the target language was through conditioning – helping learners to respond correctly to stimuli through shaping and reinforcement. Learners could overcome the habits of their native language speakers.

REVIEWING THE PRINCIPLES

The goals of teachers who use The Audio-Lingual Method are they want their students to be able to use the target language communicatively. They believe students need to over learn the target language, to learn to use it automatically without stopping to think. Their students achieve this by forming new habits in the target language and overcoming the old habits of their native language.

The role of teacher in class is like an orchestra leader, directing and controlling the language behavior of her/his students. He/She is also responsible for providing her/his students with a good model for imitation. The role of the students is they are imitators of the teacher’s model of the tapes he/she supplies of model speakers. They follow the teacher’s directions and respond as accurately and as rapidly as possible.

REVIEWING THE TECHNIQUES

New vocabulary and structural patters presented through the dialog are some characteristics in the learning/teaching process . The dialogs are learned through imitation and repetition. Drills ( Such as repetition, back-ward built up, chain, substitution, transformation, and question-and-answer ) are conducted based upon the patterns present in the dialog. Students’ successful responses are positively reinforced. Grammar is included from the examples given; explicit grammar rules are not provided. Cultural information is contextualized in the dialogs or presented by the teacher. Students’ reading and written work is based upon the oral work they did earlier.

There is student-to-student interaction in chain drills or when students take different roles in dialog, but this interaction is teacher-directed. Most of the interaction is between the teacher and students and is initiated by the teacher.

The view of language in THE Audio-Lingual Method has been influenced by descriptive linguist. Everyday speech is emphasized. Culture consists of everyday behavior and lifestyle of the target language speakers.

Vocabulary is kept to a minimum while students are mastering the sound system and grammatical patterns. The natural order of skills presentation is adhered to: Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing. The oral skills receive most of the attention. Pronunciation is taught from the beginning, often by students working in language laboratories or discriminating in between members of minimal pairs.

The habits of the students’ native language are thought to interfere with students’ attempts to master the target language. A contrastive analysis between the students’ native language and the target language will reveal where a teacher should expect the most interference.

In the evaluation, students might be asked to distinguish between minimal pair, for example, r to supply an appropriate verb from a sentence.

Students errors are to be avoided if all possible through the teacher’s awareness of where the students will have difficulty and restriction of what they are taught to say.

suggestopedia

INTRODUCTION

The methods present in this and the next chapters are illustrative of that which Celce-Murcia (1991) calls an affective-humanistic approach, an approach in which there is respect for student’s feelings. The originator of this method, Georgi Lozanov, believes as does Silent Way’s Caleb Gattegno, that language learning can occur at a much faster rate than ordinarily transpires. The reason for our inefficiency, Lozanov asserts, is that we set up psychological learning: We fear that we will be unable to perform, that we will be limited in our ability to learn, that we will fail. One result is that we do not use the full mental powers that we have.

EXPERIENCE

The first thing we notice when we enter the classroom is how different this room is compared with all other classroom we have been in so far. Everything is bright and colorful. There are several posters on the walls. Most of them are travel posters with scenes from the United Kingdom; a few, however, contain grammatical information. The teacher greets the students in Arabic and explains that they are about to begin a new and exciting experience in language learning.

REVIEWING THE TECHNIQUES AND THE CLASSROOM SET UP

If you find Suggestopedia ‘s principles meaningful, you may want to try some of the following techniques or to alter your classroom environment. Even if they do not all appeal to you, there may be some elements you could usefully adapt to your own teaching style.

desuggestopedia

Suggestopedia is a teaching method developed by the Bulgarian psychotherapist Georgi Lozanov. The method has been used in different fields of studies but mostly in the field of foreign language learning.

Lozanov says that by using this method one can teach languages approximately three to five times as quickly as conventional methods. However, it is not limited to the learning of languages, but language learning was found to be a process in which one can easily measure how much and how fast something is learned.

The theory applied positive suggestion in teaching when it was developed in the 1970s. However, as improved, it has focused more on “desuggestive learning” and now is often called “desuggestopedia”. Suggestopedia is used in six major foreign-language teaching methods known to language teaching experts (the oldest being the grammar translation method.) The name of Suggestopedia is from the words “suggestion” and “pedagogy”. Many discussions and misunderstanding have caused this name because people connects the word “suggestion” to “hypnosis”. There are many different definitions for the word “suggestion”. When Dr. Lozanov chose this word, he was thinking about the English meaning: TO SUGGEST = TO OFFER, TO PROPOSE (BUT THE STUDENTS ARE FREE TO CHOOSE).

Although people think that Suggestopedia is a methodologies that works with relaxation, music, and baroque music, it is not.

Suggestopedia, however, does not use any kind of manipulative technique, such as hypnosis or guided imagery. It DOES NOT have any connection with SUPERLEARNING or NLP, although many people misunderstand Suggestopedia and think that it is Superlearning. This is confusion is caused because after UNESCO approved and recommended Suggestopedia as a superior method (in 1978), Dr. Lozanov was placed under home arrest for 10 years in the communist Bulgaria. During this time, the free world had no more access to him and researchers tried to use Suggestopedia according to their best understanding. Only after 1989 when the political situation changed in Bulgaria, Dr. Lozanov got to move to Austria.

the comparison between the audio-lingual method and the silent way

THE AUDIO-LINGUAL METHOD

Teacher wants their students to be able to use the target language communicatively. In order to do this, they believe students need to overlearn the target language, to learn to use it automatically without stopping to think. Their students achieve this by forming new habits in the target language and overcoming the old habits of their native language.

THE SILENT WAY

Students should be able to use the language for self-expressions-to express their thought, perception, and feelings. In order to do this, they need to develop independence from the teacher, to develop their own inner criteria for correctness.Students become independent by relying on themselves. The teacher therefore, should give them only what they absolutely need to promote their learning.

the direct method

INTRODUCTION

As with Grammar-Translation Method, the Direct Method is not new. Its principles have been applied by language teachers for many years. Most recently, it was revived as a method when the goal of instruction became learning how to use a foreign language to communicate. Since the Grammar-translation Method was not very effective in preparing students to use the target language communicatively, the Direct method became popular.

The Direct Method has one very basic rule: No translation is allowed. In fact, the Direct Method receives its name from the fact that meaning is to be conveyed directly in the target language through the use of demonstration and visual aids, with no recourse to the students’ native language (Diller 1978).

EXPERIENCE

The teacher is calling the class to order as we find seats toward the back of the room. He has placed a big map of the United States in the front of the classroom. He asks the students to open their books to a certain page number. The lesson entitled ‘Looking at a Map’. As the students are called one by one, they read a sentence from the reading passage at the beginning of the lesson. The teacher points to the part of the map the sentence describes after each has read his sentence.

After the students finish reading the passage, they are asked if they have any questions. A students asks what a mountain range is. The teacher turns to the blackboard and draws a series of inverted cones to illustrate a mountain range.

The teacher next instructs the students to turn to an exercise in the lesson which asks them to fill in the blanks. They read a sentence out loud and supply the missing word as they are reading.

Finally, the teacher asks the students to take out their noteboos, and he gives them a dictation. The passage he dictates is one passage he dictates is one paragraph long and is about the geography long and is about the geography of the United States.

THINKING ABOUT THE EXPERIENCE

Observations Principles

1. The students read aloud a Reading in the target language should

passage about United States be taught from the beginning of language

geography. instruction; however, the the reading skill will

be developed through practice with speaking.

Language is primarily speech.

1. The teacher points to a part

of the map after each sentence Objects present in the immediate

is read. classroom environment should be used

to help students understand the meaning.

1. The teacher uses the target The native language should not be used

language to ask the students in the classroom.

if they have a question.

1. The teacher answers the The teacher should demonstrate, not explain

student’s questions by drawing or translate.

on the blackboard or giving

examples.

1. The teacher asks questions about Vocabulary is acquired more naturally if

the map in the target language. students use it in full sentence, rather than

memorizing word lists.

1. Students ask questions about The purpose of language learning is

the map. Communication.

1. The teacher works with the Pronounciation should be worked on

Students right from the beginning of language

on the pronounciation of instruction.

‘Applachian’.

1. The teacher corrects a grammar Self-correction facilitates language

error by asking the students learning.

to make a choice.

1. The teacher asks questions Students should be encouraged to speak

About the students; stuedents ask as much as possible.

each other questions.

10. The students fill in blanks with Grammar should be taught inductively.

preposition practiced in

the lesson.

11. The teacher dictates a paragraph Writing is an important skill, to be developed

about United States geography. from the beginning of language instruction.

12. All of teh lesson of the week The syllabus is based on situations or topics,

Involve United States geography. not usually on linguistic strutures.

13. A proverb is used to discuss how Learning another language also involves

people in the U.S. view learning how speakers of that language live.

punctually.

REVIEWING THE TECHNIQUES

Reading aloud

Students take turns reading sections of a passage, play, or dialog out loud.

Question and answer exercise

This exercise is conducted only in the target language.

Getting students to self correct

The teacher of this class has the students self-correct by asking them to make a choice between what they said and a alternative answer he supplied.

Conversation practice

The teacher asks students a number of questions in the target language, which the students have to understand to be able to answer correctly.

Fill-in-the blank exercise

The students would have induced the grammar rule they need to fill in the blanks from examples and practice with earlier parts of the lesson.

Dictation

The teacher reads the passage three times. The first time the teacher reads it at a normal speed, while the students just listen.

Map drawing

The class included one example of a technique used to give students listening comprehension practice.

the grammar translation method

INTRODUCTION

The Grammar-translation method is not new. It has had different names, but it has been used by language teachers for many years. At one time it was called the classical languages, Latin and Greek (chastain 1988). Earlier in this century, this method was used for the purpose of helping students read and appreciate foreign language literature. Finally, it was thought that foreign language learning would help students grow intellectually; it was recognize that students would probably never use the target language, but the mental exercise of learning it would be beneficial anyway.

EXPERIENCE

As we enter the classroom, the class is in the middle of reading a passage in their textbook. The passage is an excerpt entitled ‘The Boys Ambition” from Mark Twain’s Life on the Mississippi. Each student is called on to read a few lines from the passage. After they have finished, they asked to translated into spanish the few lines they have just read . The teacher helps them with new vocabulary items. When the students have finished reading and translating passage, the teacher asks them in Spanish if they have any questions. One girls raises her hand and says, ‘what is paddle wheel?’ The teacher replies, ‘Es una rueda de paletas.’ Then she continues in Spanish to explain how it looked and worked on the steamboats which moved up and down the mississippi River during Mark Twain’s childhood. Another student says, ‘No understand “gorgeous.” ‘The teacher translated, ‘Primoroso.’ Since the students have no more question. In addition to questions that ask for information contained within the reading passage, the students answered two other types of questions. For the first type, they have to make inferences based on their understanding of the passage. After one-half hour, the teacher, speaking in Spanish, asks the students to stop and check their work. One by one each student reads a question and then reads his or her response. If it is correct, the teacher calls on another student to read the next question. When the have finished this exercise, the teacher reminds them that english words that look like Spanish words are called ‘cognates’. When all of these cognates from the passage have been identified, the students are told to turn to the next exercise in the chapter and to answer the question. The next section of the chapter deals with grammar. The students follow in their books as the teacher reads a description of two-word or phrasal verb. These are listed following the description, and the students are asked to translated it.

THINKING ABOUT EXPERIENCE

This has been just a brief introduction to the Grammar-Translation Method, but it is probably true that this method is not new to many of you. You may studied a language in this way, or you may be teaching with this method right now. Whether this is true or not, let us see what we have learned about the Grammar-Translation Method.

REVIEWING THE TECHNIQUES

Ask yourself if any of the answers to the above questions make sense to you. If so, you may choose to try some of the techniques of the Grammar-Translation Method from review that follows.

Translation of a literary passage

Students translate a reading passage from the target language into their native language.

Reading comprehension questions

Students answer questions in the target language based on their understanding of the reading passage. Often the questions are sequenced so that the first group of questions asks for informationcontained within the reading passage.

Antonyms/synonims

Students are given one set of words and are asked to find antonyms in the reading passage. A similar exercise could be done by asking students to find a synonims for a particular set of words.

Cognates

Students are taught to recognize cognates by learning the spelling or sound patterns that correspond between the languages.

Deductive application of rule

Grammar rules are presented with examples. Exceptions to each rule are also noted.

Fill-in-the-blanks

Students are given a series of sentences with word missing.

Memorization

Students are given lists of target language vocabulary words and their native language equivalents and are asked to memorize them.

Use words in sentences

In order to show that students understand the meaning and use of a new vocabulary item, they make up sentences in which they use the new words.

Composition

The teacher gives the students a topic to write about in thetargetlanguage. The topic is based upon some aspect of the reading passage of the lesson.

CONCLUSION

You have now had an opportunity to examine the principles and some of the techniques of the Grammar-Translation Method. try to make a connection between what you have understood and your own teaching situation and beliefs.

How to teach listening?

In Listening classes, students are usually given practice in listening but they are not actually taught listening. Practice is not enough.

Research and case studies have told us many things about how listening should be taught. But often, this knowledge has not made the jump into classroom practice. While many classes are based on the idea of giving students lots of practice with English, research tells us that we also need to teach listening.

In addition to giving students plenty of listening practice. We should also break the skill of listening into micro-skill components and make sure that our students are aware of what they need to know to understand how to listen to English.

Perhaps the most important study skill children learn is the ability to listen closely and comprehend what they have heard. As a teacher, students' listening skill levels can make a difference in their performance as well as the class atmosphere. By employing a variety of creative exercises, teachers can help students develop strong listening skills that will aid them throughout their academic careers.

How to teach reading?

Traditionally, the purpose of learning to read in a language has been to have access to the literature written in that language. In language instruction, reading materials have traditionally been chosen from literary texts that represent "higher" forms of culture.

This approach assumes that students learn to read a language by studying its vocabulary, grammar, and sentence structure, not by actually reading it. In this approach, lower level learners read only sentences and paragraphs generated by textbook writers and instructors. The reading of authentic materials is limited to the works of great authors and reserved for upper level students who have developed the language skills needed to read them.

The communicative approach to language teaching has given instructors a different understanding of the role of reading in the language classroom and the types of texts that can be used in instruction. When the goal of instruction is communicative competence, everyday materials such as train schedules, newspaper articles, and travel and tourism Web sites become appropriate classroom materials, because reading them is one way communicative competence is developed. Instruction in reading and reading practice thus become essential parts of language teaching at every level.

How to teach speaking?

The first thing to keep in mind is that when we are helping our language students learn to speak English, we are not actually teaching them to speak. Unless they are infants, they already know how to do that. What we are really helping them with falls into three categories

1. improving fluency (speaking smoothly)
2. improving pronunciation (saying words properly)
3. improving enunciation (Saying words/phrases clearly - I think this includes word and sentence intonation)

Some would say that vocabulary, grammar, and cultural usage also fall into how we teach speaking, but I'd say that while they are critical, they are not only in the domain of speaking. Speaking is about using our mouth and vocal cords to make sounds that people understand as language. It certainly involves other elements like grammar and vocabulary, but they aren't the core of it.

Improving Fluency

Fluency comes from practice - plain and simple. However it needs to be practice that involves extended use of the language and use of extended sentences. You can not build fluency by repeating single words or short phrases. Fluency at its heart relates to being able to speak for longer periods of time in a smooth way. Broadly speaking, here are a few things that can help build fluency:

1. speeches or presentations
2. group discussions
3. role plays
4. negotiations and debates
5. interviews and meetings
6. chatting in small groups

Improving Pronunciation

Pronunciation is the ability to say words properly with the correct sounds in the correct places. This is a skill that can take a VERY long to develop, but with consistent work and practice, it can be done. There are two keys to proper pronunciation 1) tons of native speaker input and 2) tons of speaking by the learner with native speakers. However, practice and lessons that target specific trouble areas can make a huge difference in a student's ability to deal with issues in pronunciation.

1. working on specific vowels
2. working on trouble consonants (e.g. th for French speakers)
3. working on understanding movement and location of mouth and tongue when making sounds

Improving Enunciation

Enunciation is speaking clearly - perhaps better understood by its opposite which is mumbling or slurring words. Enunciation is a very important aspect of speaking in that poor enunciation can make someone almost impossible to understand. Again improvements in enunciation come from exposure to native speakers, and plenty of natural practice. Of course focused work targeting problem areas can help a great deal as well. Things that can be done to help with enunciation include:

1. focused work on trouble word combination
2. working on reductions (want to –> wanna)
3. working on sentence level stress points
4. working on word level stress points (e.g. differences between noun/verb forms of same word record/record)
5. working on sentence level intonation patterns

How to Teach Writing?

A well-written piece can be described as incorporating elements of writing in such a way that a reader can experience the writer's intended meaning, understand the writer's premise, and accept or reject the writer's point of view.

Effective Writing:

* is focused on the topic and does not contain extraneous or loosely related information;
* has an organizational pattern that enables the reader to follow the flow of ideas because it contains a beginning, middle, and end and uses transitional devices;
* contains supporting ideas that are developed through the use of details, examples, vivid language, and mature word choice; and
* follows the conventions of standard written English (i.e., punctuation, capitalization, and spelling) and has variation in sentence structure

The most important factor in writing exercises is that students need to be personally involved in order to make the learning experience of lasting value. Encouraging student participation in the exercise, while at the same time refining and expanding writing skills, requires a certain pragmatic approach. The teacher should be clear on what skills he/she is trying to develop. Next, the teacher needs to decide on which means (or type of exercise) can facilitate learning of the target area. Once the target skill areas and means of implmentation are defined, the teacher can then proceed to focus on what topic can be employed to ensure student participation. By pragmatically combing these objectives, the teacher can expect both enthusiasm and effective learning.

Jumat, 21 Mei 2010

stronger

Yup, pada akhirnya seperti yg gw tebak dari awal, PUTUS, yeah gw putus juga sm dy, iyah gw tau emang cuma sebentar banget... gw nurut apa kata ortu gw and voila! beginilah jadinya, tapi gw ga nyesel, absolutely NO, gw bersyukur udah nurut apa kata nyokap.. Dan gw ngerasa 10x lipat lebih bahagia di banding pas gw masi jadian sama lo, emang bener kok, hubungan yg ga worth it ga pantes buat dipertahanin...

"... Rasakan semua, demikian pinta sang hati. Amarah atau asmara, kasih atau pedih, segalanya indah jika memang tepat pada waktunya. Dan inilah hatikum pada dini hari yang hening. Bening. Apa adanya."

Minggu, 02 Mei 2010

Sabtu, 01 Mei 2010

everything

seminggu yang lalu gw kenal sama lo, dan gw suka..

gw suka sama lo bahkan pas sebelum gw ketemu lo...

is it love? is it chemistry?

dan sekarang, tepat seminggu, tapi kenapa smuanya jadi rumit? smuanya seakan memusuhi kita.

Status, waktu, keadaan, semuanya seakan tak sejalan dengan harapan..

why is everything so confusing? or maybe i'm just scare of my mind??

NO! Absolutely NO!

Is everything goes wrong?

Once more, NO!

Ga da yg salah dan ga da yg patut disalahkan..

Semua cuma masalah Status, waktu dan keadaan yg memang mungkin SEDANG TAK SEJALAN DENGAN HARAPAN.


Mungkin jalan terbaik adalah Stop mendikte Tuhan dan stop menyalahi keadaan